Ethiopia is unique among its African counterparts in that it has only briefly been colonized. For the majority of its existence, this country has maintained its freedom, transitioning from a monarchy to a socialist state in the early 1990s. In 2012 Ethiopia peacefully transferred leadership from Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn.

This country is one of the poorest countries in the world with a rapidly increasing population. Nearly 80% of Ethiopia's economy is in the agricultural sector. Coffee is its largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia's increasing population is having a large impact on its citizens. More than 40% of its population is under the age of 15 and the fertility rate is over 5 children per woman. Many Ethiopians are leaving the area or becoming refugees to escape the difficult conditions.